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angle-left System Configuration: AIT/Köstendorf

General Description

Köstendorf is a village in the north of Salzburg with a structure typical for the rural area of Austria. However Köstendorf is of special interest since 2013 when it became a model region for smart grids.




General Characteristics

Village surface: 10-15 ha

Buildings

Köstendorf is composed of

  • Around 100 single- or multi-family houses with an average living area of 150 m² and construction years ranging from 1970-2010
  • 22 commercial buildings (e.g., schools, shops, post office etc.) with an average heated area of 470 m² and construction years ranging from 1980-2000

Electrical Layout

  • Centralized

    • Production
      N/A
    • Storage
      To be determined / dependent on use case
  • Network


    Low-voltage grid (voltage level 400 V) with total cable length of about 6.525 km
  • Decentralized

    • Production
      • 43 PV systems are feeding a total of 45 MWh/a (40 kWp)
      • Profiles generated based on measured data
      • Scalable generation
    • Storage
      To be determined / dependent on use case
    • Consumption
      • Around 100 households
      • 16 commercial customers
      • 2 customers with agriculture activities (about 775 MWh/a)
      • 36 electric vehicles are supplied with about 34 MWh/a
      • Load profiles were used and generated on the basis of annual measured energy consumption and synthetic normalized load profiles on the basis of Austrian standard profiles for households and for non-residential usage.

Heating Layout

  • Centralized

    • Production
      Generic plant (non-renewable energy)
    • Storage
      N/A
  • Network

    District heating network with a total length of about 4.1 km (between 70°C and 90°C, depending on the outdoor temperature)
  • Decentralized

    • Production
      Heat pumps (100-200 kW el) – coupled to thermal storages
    • Storage
      Thermal storages – each connected to a heat pump
    • Consumption
      • Linear density of about 520 kWh/y/m
      • Peak load demand of about 2.0 MW
      • Synthetic load profiles for domestic hot water and space heating demand

Cooling Layout

N/A

ICT Layout

Smart metering and controllers (however ICT is not explicitely modeled)

Social Aspects

The multi-energy network developed for Köstendorf connects the following buildings:

The inhabitants of Köstendorf as well as the people working there are considered the main users.

The socio-economic profile of the village Köstendorf is typical for rural areas of Austria. With only around 7% of the inhabitants having an immigration background Köstendorf is quite homogeneous regarding culture. Salzburg has a traditionally low unemployment rate and many inhabitants of Köstendorf are commuting to their place of employment (25% to the city of Salzburg).

Since Köstendorf is a model region for smart grids people are considered to have a highly positive attitude towards intelligent energy technologies. This is substantiated by a total number of 36 electrical vehicles and 43 photovoltaic power plants.

  • Users

    • around 100 single- or multi-family houses
    • 22 commercial buildings (e.g., schools, shops, bank, post office etc.)
  • Socio-demographics (for residential areas)

  • Dominant views and attitudes towards smart energy technology

  • Other

    N/A

Technological Aspects

  • Renewable energy mix in the context of the SC (e.g. national or regional scale)

    • The energy mix in the state of Salzburg is currently characterized by high shares of petroleum products, biomass, hydro-electric power and gas
    • The share of renewable energy is around 42% of final energy use
    • The share of renewable electricity in final electrical energy consumption is over 90% mainly due to usage of hydro-electric power and biomass with minor contributions from wind and photovoltaic
    • The share of renewable energy in district heating networks is around 50%.
  • Other

    N/A

 

Environmental Aspects

  • Local availability of energy sources

    • High (and already significantly exploited) availability of biomass
    • High (and already significantly exploited) potential of hydropower
    • Local wind production is not relevant for the near future (see political aspects)
  • Climate conditions

    Climate is typical for Central Europe with its moderately warm summers and cold winters.

  • Other

    N/A

Economic Aspects

  • Market players

    There are several active players on the liberalised electricity market in Salzburg and Austria, each with different roles and responsibilities. The main ones are:

    • The transmission grid operators APG (for electricity) and Gas Connect (for gas)
    • The distribution grid operator Salzburg Netz GmbH (for electricity and gas)
    • The Austrian regulator E-Control that monitors and regulates the energy market
    • Various electricity producers and energy retailers
  • Energy tariffs (electricity, gas, heat)

    Austria has static electricity rates where real energy costs, distribution costs and taxes have a nearly equal share. Average rates are around 0,22 €/kWh for electricity and 0,07 €/kWh for gas.

  • Market regulation and metering

    Current market regulations don’t allow the remuneration of flexible energy use (e.g. via dynamic pricing).

  • Other

    N/A

Political Aspects

  • Main policy vision

    Austria is committed to achieving the climate and Energy Policy 20/20/20 targets. The strategy1 to reach these targets is based on improving energy efficiency, renewable energy generation (focusing on hydro power, wind power, biomass and photovoltaic) and security of supply (e.g., through district heating and cooling, smart grids, diversification of supply etc.) Salzburg2 set out an ambitious plan to reach a share of 50% of renewables by 2020 and become energy independent by 2050. This includes an increase of geothermal energy use in district heating networks, a high share of photovoltaic and solar heat, more hydropower capabilities and wind power.

  • Incentives for renewable energy and storage

    Numerous incentives for the promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency for private households exist. The most relevant for this project are incentive schemes for battery storages for photovoltaic3, for photovoltaic systems4, for heat pumps5 and also for electric vehicles6.

  • Regulation free zones

    N/A

  • Other

    • Regulations do not allow for services provided to the DSO (distribution system operator) by third parties, such as storage-based voltage regulation. However this might change in the future.
    • Currently no wind power plants are installed in Salzburg. This will not significantly change in the near future with strong opposing public opinion and limited technical potential for this region.